To talk about hybridization in Carbon we need to remember that this element Atomic Number is 6, then its electron configuration is

    \[ 1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^2 \]

Which we can represent also using the spin sign of the electrons

    \[ 1s^{\uparrow}^{\downarrow}, 2s^{\uparrow}^{\downarrow}, 2p^{\uparrow}^{\downarrow} \]

The Electrons who participate in Hybridization are those in level 2

2 electrons in sub level ‘s’ , 2 electrons in sub level ‘p’. Since ‘p’ has 3 orientations, ‘px’, ‘py’ and ‘pz’, and we have just 2 electrons, ‘pz’ will remain empty at this moment

    \[ 2s^{\uparrow}^{\downarrow}  2px ^{\uparrow} 2py^{\uparrow} 2pz \]

Carbon solves this situation sending 1 electron from orbital ‘s’ to orbital ‘pz’, and when that happens, the orbitals take a new Name, and a new Form, they become Orbitals ‘sp’

    \[ 2sp^{\uparrow}  2sp ^{\uparrow} 2sp^{\uparrow} 2sp^{\uparrow} \]

Hybridization is mixing atomic orbitals into new Hybrid Orbitals

We get 4 new Hybrid Orbitals, and they are called more specifically ‘sp3’, because they were created mixing 1 ‘s’ orbital with 3 ‘p’ orbitals.

The angle among these new orbitals is 109.5 degrees.

Carbon use this orbitals when creates single bonding molecules, for example with Hydrogen, which has 1 electron, they will complete one orbital ‘sp’ with 2 electrons.

If one Carbon is combined with 4 Hydrogens, will build a molecule of Methane,

    \[ CH_4 \]

in that case the final electronic distribution for level 2 will be

    \[ 2sp^{\uparrow}^{\downarrow}  2sp ^{\uparrow}^{\downarrow} 2sp^{\uparrow \downarrow} 2sp^{\uparrow \downarrow} \]

and Carbon reaches stability because now has 8 electrons in its valence shell.


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