Tag Archives: Sodium


It is the process by which a solute (solid, liquid or gaseous) in contact with a solvent is dispersed forming a mixture in which the components are not distinguishable. The best example of a solution is a salt dissolved in water, the most common salt is the one we use every day at the table by the time we eat, this salt has a crystal form, is composed of ions sodium positively charged, and ions chloride with negative charge.

When a salt crystal is in contact with big amount of water, ions Chloride, negative charged, will be attracted by the positive side of water which are the hydrogen atoms, they take the ions from the crystal lattice, and the original solid pass to same state of the solvent.
The final mix is homogeneous and have the same properties in the whole mix.

In Chemistry is important to know the amount of solute in a solution, this value is known as Concentration of the solution. The concentration of a solution is calculated using

Concentration\text{ of Solution = }\tfrac{Amount\text{ }of\text{ Solute}}{Amount\text{ of Solute + Amount of Solvent}}

Molarity\text{ = }\tfrac{Moles\text{ }of\text{ Solute}}{Volume\text{ of Solution}}

Next chapter will show different ways to express concentration of solutions.



Atoms in our planet are not by themselves, they are joined at least to another atom through a chemical bond. Bonds allow atoms achieve a stable electron configuration, similar as the noble gases, which are mostly not joined to other atoms.

The more important kind of bonds are Ionic and Covalent.

Ionic Bond

Is formed between atoms from the groups IA, IIA (metals) and VIA, VIIA (non metals). In this bond,  metals donate one or more electrons to the non-metals leading to form ions, one of them positively charged (cation) and the other with negative charge (anion).

For example, common table salt is Sodium Chloride. When Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) are combined, the sodium atoms lose an electron, forming cations (Na+), and the chlorine atoms gain an electron to form anions (Cl).

Na + Cl =  Na+ + Cl = NaCl 

Most of the Ionic compounds in our planet are in the solid state and form lattice structures. The two principal factors in determining the form of the lattice are the charge of the ions and their sizes.